Monday, July 6, 2015

Gyapo Gyaser a story or a myth....

AT 13,400 feet, the pass commands a breathtaking view of the valleys on either side and as one gasps for breath one wonders why it is called a pass at all for it does not have that narrowness associated with one. It spans a kilometre in width and overlooks the gigantic meadows that accentuate the sense of height. Rohtang splits the awe-inspiring Pir Panjal range in Northern Himalayas. On one side of the pass is the picturesque Kulu valley. On the other is the rugged terrain of Lahaul. This pass, joining the two sides, has made communication between Kulu and Lahaul a possibility.
Legend has it that for long the people of Lahaul thought that there was no existence beyond the high ranges of Pir Panjal and for the people of Kulu valley theirs was the land’s end. Many stories and myths are linked with the creation of Rohtang that defy reason but are all the same nearer the heart of the people. According to one version, the people of Lahaul heard from the winds and the birds, stories about the existence of a prosperous land beyond the Pir Panjal range. They propitiated Lord Shiva who smote the mountain range with a whip with such severity that the rocks crashed and a terrible wind started blowing; and then there followed an impenetrable darkness and an impregnable silence. At this moment, the pass was created. Lord Shiva went away but the wind continued to stay. Till date, the pass is lashed by stormy winds.
Another story has it that a king, Gyapo Gyaser, came on his flying horse and reaching the Khoksar ranges he gave a powerful blow with his magic whip to make his way across. The mountain cleaved to let him pass. In both the stories, whipping seems to have produced great stormy winds, which the people of Kulu and Lahaul say, shows the might of Lord Shiva and King Gyapo, respectively. The weather has not changed since and powerful hurricane wind starts blowing atop Rohtang around noontime every single day. Anything moving on the pass is likely to be blown off.
A mist may rise any time, reducing visibility to near zero. That is the reason why tourist traffic starts moving down to Manali between 12.30 to 1 p.m. and tourists are warned to keep timings. Call it a natural geographical phenomenon or freak of nature or the might of the Creator, but one thing is certain that it is not within human limits to dare the wind. That is the reason why no accommodation facilities are available at Rohtang.
The drive from Manali to Rohtang is an unforgettable experience. The 52-km-long metal road is a feat of engineering and one cannot but appreciate the Border Roads Organisation for their hard work in making and maintaining the stretch that has made the journey to Rohtang possible for an average tourist. As one crosses Manali, the scene seems to be changing with every turn. And every time you look out, a breathtakingly beautiful panorama opens before you. The vast and open Beas valley, the gurgling streams, the apple orchards and the expanse of lush green meadows soon change to formidable heights, deep gorges and unfathomable valleys. Soon, you reach Rahla waterfalls. Stopping there, you can enjoy the force of the water cascading down with full vigour. The air is now sparkling clear and the sky deep blue. En route, you can see tiny hamlets and the orchards that are left behind. To keep you company, the colourful flowers peep through the mountainsides — the deep mauve and bright yellow wild flowers, the exquisite ‘gora’ bushes with shell pink flora and some white daisies delicate and uncertain whether to bloom at this height or not. The picture of nature is just superb, the colours are bright and the lines of scenic beauty etching out in just perfect contours. As the height increases, the greenery dwindles. You cross Madhi and an intimidating feeling engulfs you as you enter a crystal fairy palace. It is, indeed, an ice-wall through which the road passes.
Short of Rohtang, there are several stalls giving coats, jackets and snowshoes on rent to prepare you for the cold up on the pass. A welcome service, indeed.
And once you are there you are atop the world. The crystal white beauty, the mile-long expanse, the unknown terrain beyond and the awe of the mysterious just baffle you. For the tourists, playing in the snow is a wonderful experience. Despite the dizzy feeling and shortness of breath, they seem to be bent on having maximum fun. To one side of the cliff is an igloo-like structure. It is the source of the Beas, one of our mighty rivers that starts its odyssey as a non-descript trickle. A beautiful glacial lake called Sarkund, and also Dashair, lies at 500-600 feet above the pass. Its water is supposed to have curative value but reaching there is not easy and a tourist cannot make it because of constrains of time as he has to leave before the stormy winds start lashing the pass. But the locals brave this treacherous trek to bathe in the lake on auspicious days.
Coming down Rohtang, all through the hairpin bends and stomach-churning heights, stopping at Madhi is soothing. Madhi has several dhabas that offer snacks and lunch and it is not a bad idea to taste kadhi-chawal if you can withstand the journey downhill. With a hot cup of tea in your hand, looking at the Beas flowing like a ribbon affords a space to speculate and live through the experience of Rohtang. Here, the Beas is just a tiny stream, unpolluted and sparkling, curving its way down soon to become a might river. There is a small HP Government rest house nearby, standing on a barren stretch.
Rohtang may be an exhilarating experience but with its hazardous climatic conditions it is not visitor-friendly for it remains closed for a major part of the year and is open to tourists only between May and August. For the rest of the time, blizzards hold sway and the temperatures are below freezing.
For the people of Lahaul, however, Rohtang has been a blessing. It lies on the old trade route to Central Asia and has served as a gateway to Lahaul and Spiti via the Baralacha Pass, to Ladakh and Tibet. Traders from Ladakh and Tibet have passed along this route with their mules, stacked with salt and borax, mined in the inner Himalayas. Even today, they bring wool and woollen blankets, asafoetida (heeng, in Hindi), aromatic roots and precious stones — tiger’s eye, lapis lazuli, amber and turquoise for which the region is known. They return with tea, sugar and foodgrains as the spring heralds mild weather to cross the pass.
On your way to Rohtang, amid other things you may notice the nomadic shepherds, the Gaddis, with their flocks of sheep and the fierce Gaddi dogs trekking slowly towards their destination. And as a lilting tune on a flute vibrates through the fresh air you are just filled with inexplicable happiness, a sense of gratification.

NGT Verdict:

NGT Verdict:
- All commercial activities (dhabas/tea stalls) on Rohtang areas should be shut down with immediate effect.
- All tourism activities (skiing/paragliding/ATV/snow scooters/tube slide/sledging/horse riding) should be banned immediately.
- Number of vehicles plying Manali-Rohtang road (for tourism purose) should remain same i.e. 1,000 per day.
- HP govt, district administration, tourism dept failed to comply with our (NGT) orders, strictly, so all responsible shall appear before bench in Shimla on July 16.
- Despite imposing ban, 4,000 vehicles were found on Rohtang (as reported by survey teams), which is unabashedly breach of orders.
- Next hearing on July 16 at Shimla.

Monday, June 1, 2015

Lahaul & Spiti - The Land of Wondrous Gompas Ashok Thakur

Lahaul & Spiti - The Land of Wondrous Gompas

Ashok Thakur

Ashok Thakur belongs to the ruling family of Lahaul. He is presently
the Principal Secretary (Culture and Tourism) to the Government of
Himachal Pradesh. As such he is responsible for the preservation of
some to the oldest monasteries of this remote Himalayan region.

The Himalayan district of Lahaul–Spiti in the Indian state of Himachal
Pradesh is one of the last refuges for Tibetan Buddhism in India. As
one crosses over the Rohtang Pass from verdant Manali through the
fluttering prayer flags and piled up mane stones one truly enters into a
different world – a world of gompas, chortens and above all smiling
faces with chinky eyes and warm hearts which is in stark contrast to
the overall ruggedness of the landscape. Centuries of landlocked and
hard existence have led these people to devise their own social
institutions for their survival - polyandry, law of primogeniture and
above all the monastic system of life all designed to keep population in
check and at the same time to avoid fragmentation of land holdings.
Even today the district is land locked for 5 months in a year as all the
passes leading into the valley are blocked due to heavy snowfall from
December to May each year, the only connection with the outside
world then being a once a week helicopter service for medical
emergencies. Amongst all the three institutions it is only the gompas which are still
going strong thanks largely to the Dalai Lama who has been frequently
visiting these areas and holding Kalachakra discourses for the people
of this Himalayan district.
I shall take you for a tour of the stunning gompas of Lahaul and Spiti.
Let us first go to Lahaul. Around Kyelong, Lahaul’s headquarter, one
can find some of the most exquisite gompa of the area.
Located 8 kms from Keylong, Guru Ghantal is overlooking a precipice
above Tandi village, where the Chandra and Bhaga rivers join to form
the Chandrabhaga. The gompa is surrounded by a large number of
rock caves. Locals claim that Guru Padmasambhava had meditated
before here leaving for Tibet. Guru Ghantal is a double-storeyed
structure made of wood, with pyramidal roofs and a big assembly hall,
characteristic of monasteries in the Lahaul valley.
The monastery has a black stone image of the Hindu goddess Kali,
locally known as Vajreshwari Devi, the deity has been assimilated into
the Buddhist pantheon.
A few kilometres away is Shashur gompa. Founded in the 16th century
by a Tibetan Lama, the place is named after the juniper trees growing
in its vicinity. The original temple has been rebuilt several times; the
last being about a hundred years ago after it was destroyed by an
avalanche. This monastery has gigantic tangkhas, some over 4.5 m
tall and numerous wall paintings, including that of the 84 Buddhists
Once the capital of Lahaul, the village of Kardang possesses a 900
year old monastery built on the banks of the river Bhaga. It was
renovated by a Tibetan master, Lama Norbu in 1912. The multi-
storeyed structure has four temples. Kardang’s library has a collection of musical instruments, beautiful
tangkhas and ancient weapons. Unfortunately the old gompa has been
demolished and in its place a more spacious and a modern one built
has been constructed.
In Satingiri village, Tayul gompa (or ‘chosen place’ in Tibetan) is
famous for its 4 meter tall statue of Guru Padmasambhava. The prayer
wheel at this gompa is reputed to have the divine power of ‘self
turning’. According to resident monks, this last happened in 1986.
Lahaul has the particularity to have two temples holy to both
Buddhists and Hindus. The Mrikula Devi temple in Udaipur village is
dedicated to the goddess Kali. This wooden temple was built in the
11th century. The local priests claim that it was built much earlier.
Overnight, the Pandava brothers would have constructed it from a
single block of wood.
A fascinating panel depicts the Assault of Mara, in which Buddha
engages in battle with Mara the Tempter, flanked by Rama warring
with the demon Ravana.
The other temple is the 8th century Trilokinath temple across the
Chandrabhaga river. It has a six-armed deity that is said to have been
installed by Padmasambhava himself. It is worshipped as Shiva by
Hindus and Avalokiteshwara by Buddhists.
Officiating priests claim that those who pass through the narrow
passage between the temple’s wall and the two pillars that stand at
the entrance to the main shrine, wash off all the sins of all their
previous births.
The other valley of the district is the Spiti valley. Here you can find the
most awe-inspiring gompas. Spiti’s early monasteries were built during
the 11th and 12th century during an era of peace and renaissance. The
great translator Rinchen Zangpo has been instrumental for the revival
of Buddhism in the area. With the Mongol invasion in the 17th century,
this peace was shattered and warfare affected the architecture of most
of the gompas. During this period, the gompas were constructed on
elevated ground, usually on hill peaks. Thus they gained the
appellation ‘fort monasteries’. One of the most well-known examples
of such construction is Kye, which was shifted from lower ground at
Rangrik to a higher one.
The uppermost rooms in the gompa are assigned to the khenpo (the
abbot); this position indicates his superior status. The most sacred
spaces in a gompa are the lha-khang (sacred shrine) and the dukhang
(assembly hall). The gon-khang (chamber of protective deities)
and zalma (chamber of picture treasures) are also of great
significance. Lower down in monasteries are the monks’ cells. The
verandas of the du-khang are usually most extensively decorated. A
monastery’s courtyard, the site of all monastic festivals, is an integral
part of the building. Every courtyard has a lungta (prayer flag) around
which monks perform the annual cham (ritual dance).
In most monasteries, the inside walls, windows and doors are painted
in vivid colours like black and red, in contrast to the white exterior.
These sharp, alternating colours are a feature of Tibetan architecture,
and derive their philosophical basis from Tantra, which emphasises the
union of opposites.
Kye gompa is situated 7 kms from Kaza, Spiti’s headquarters. It is the
first fortified monastery in Spiti. The entire complex is located on the
slope of a hill. Kye’s garrisoned architecture still bears stark testimony
of the Mongols’ attacks in the region. As late as the 19th century, Kye
was subjected to more assaults during the Kullu-Ladakh, the Dogra
and Sikh wars.
Kye is also a vibrant centre of Buddhist cultural tradition. Its elaborate
du-khang was rebuilt after the original was destroyed in the
earthquake of 1975.
Not far away at Komic is Tangyud gompa at an elevation of 4,587 m.
It is one of the highest in the world. This monastery is over 500 years
old and has about 45 monks in residence.
According to a legend its construction was foretold in Tibet, as a
monastery built between two mountains, one shaped like a snow lion
and the other like a decapitated eagle. The space between the
mountains would resemble the eye of a snow cock, and, the name
Komic in fact derives from this – ko means snow cock and mic, eye.
India’s oldest functioning monastery is Tabo gompa, some 47 kms
from Kaza. This monastery is an architectural illustration of the
concept of the mandala. The monastery celebrated its 1,000th
anniversary in 1996 when the Dalai Lama performed the Kalachakra
initiation in Tabo.
The gompa is known as the ‘Ajanta of the Himalayas’, holds treasures
in its dimly-lit interiors. Its walls and ceilings are a canvas for
astounding mural paintings. Sharp lines, earthy colours and distinctly
Indian features are characteristic of the paintings from this early
period. The du-khang is the most elaborately decorated, with its walls
divided into 3 tiers. The life of Buddha is depicted on the lowermost
tier, followed with 32 stucco images on pedestals in the middle tier,
and 3 rows of Boddhisattvas on the uppermost tier.
From a considerable distance, Dhankar gompa stands out because of
the solidity of its construction, which led the 19th century traveller,
Trebeck, to refer to it as a ‘cold fort’. Dhankar was originally called
Dhakkar or ‘Palace on a Cliff’. Dhankar was once the capital of Spiti.
This gompa has been enlisted as one of the World Endangered
A two-hour drive from Dhankar is Lha-lun gompa (literally the ‘Land of
Gods’). It is one of Spiti’s oldest monasteries which is believed to have
been constructed overnight by the gods after Lotsava Rinchen Zangpo
planted a willow tree here, stating that if it lived through the year, a
temple had be built next to it. The tree still stands outside the gompa.
As a result of the sectarian strife in Spiti most monasteries belongs to
the Gelukpa sect. Only in Pin valley, particularly at Kungri and Mud,
one does find monasteries of the Nyingmapa tradition. This is probably
because this region was very isolated, the only entrance being through
the Pin river. The Kungri gompa has a large retinue of monks in
residence. The dilapidated, mud-walled old building is flanked by a
recently built hall decorated with paintings and woodwork.
The monastic history of the region makes it clear how links with
Tibetan culture were (and are) maintained and balanced with the local
ethos. This is an indication of the ‘sacred geography’ that extends
across countries. In Ladakh, for example, the Stakna monastery
maintains a link with Guru Ghantal and with their mother monastery at
Pangtang Dechinling in faraway Bhutan. If a monk desires higher
education, for which facilities are not available in Lahaul, he goes
My earliest association with gompas of Lahaul-Spiti was as a child in
Gemur gompa in Lahaul where I learnt the Tibetan alphabet under the
guidance of my grand father Thakur Mangal Chand, the Rais (or Wazir)
of Lahaul. He was the one responsible for inculcating in me interest in
Lahauli history and culture. He himself was a multifaceted personality:
being an accomplished administrator, a renowned amchi [Tibetan
traditional doctor], a master of Thanka painting and an explorer who
led expeditions successfully into Tibet with British officers. For this
reason, he was appointed as the British Trade Agent at Gartok.
My later association with the region and its gompas was in my official
capacity as the Deputy Commissioner Lahoul Spiti which means that as
head of the District, I was also responsible for the gompas and their
restoration and upkeep. I continue doing so today as the head of the
Department of Culture in the State of Himachal Pradesh.
And do not forget, Himachal is the land of hospitality; we will be
delighted to take you around our wonderous gompas.


Mani Stones carved with the sacred chant Om Mani Padme Hum are
stacked one on top of the other to form walls. Often, the mani wall
ends at the entrance to a village or on the top of a pass.

Gompa or monastery is supposed to be located in solitary place, far
away from social settlements.

Chorten, Tibetan for stupa, is a Buddhist reliquary structure that
commemorates an auspicious occasion or ceremony, or is a repository
of the relics of important monks and saints.

Thursday, April 9, 2015

रिवाल्सर में 22 मार्च 2015 को बौद्ध शिक्षा एवम भोटी भाषा पर तीन दिवसीय संगोष्ठी में पढ़ा गया पत्र 

लाहुल और स्पिति में शिक्षण और प्रशिक्षण की परम्परा का इतिहास

                                                                                                - तोबदन

लाहुल और स्पिति दोनों क्षेत्रों में प्राचीन काल में शिक्षण पद्धति की परम्परा कुछ भिन्न भिन्न रही है। इसका एक मुख्य कारण यह था कि शिक्षण पद्धति दोनों क्षेत्रों में वहां की सामाजिक व्यवस्था पर आधारित थी और दोनो की सामाजिक व्यवस्था में कुछ आधारभूत  भिन्नता थी।

वैसे लाहुल और स्पिति दोनों की भौगोलिक परिस्थिति और पर्यावरण में बहुत समानता है, जो अत्यंत कठोर हैं। यहां खेती के लिए भूमि बहुत कम है और फसल भी वर्ष में केवल एक ही हो पाती है, वह भी बहुत कठिनाई से, क्योंकि यहां सिंचाई के बिना कोई फसल नहीं उगाई जा सकती है। यहां जंगल भी नहीं है जिस पर कि कुछ सीमा तक आर्थिक लाभ के लिए निर्भर किया जा सकता है। इस कठिन वातावरण में किसी व्यक्ति को जीवित रहने के लिए बहुत अधिक संघर्ष करना पड़ता था।  इसलिए किसी भी परिवार के लिए पर्याप्त आर्थिक संसाधनों का प्रबन्ध करना उसकी बहुत बडी समस्या थी। कठोर सामाजिक व्यवस्था इसका एक बहुत बड़ा उपाय था और यह रास्ता अपनाना अनिवार्य था।

व्यवस्था में सबसे महत्वपूर्ण उद्देश्य था परिवार की संपत्ति और संसाधनों को विभाजित होने से रोकना ताकि परिवार के वर्तमान व भविष्य के सभी सदस्यों के लिए आर्थिक सुरक्षा की गारंटी हो सके। वर्तमान में आवश्यक था परिवार के सभी सदस्यो को सुव्यवस्थित ढंग से लाभदायक आर्थिक गतिविधि में कार्यरत करना। इसके लिए लाहुल और स्पिति में भिन्न-भिन्न विधि अपनाए गए।

इसी कारण से लाहुल और स्पिति में पूर्व काल में शिक्षण पद्धति में भेद रहा हैं। यहां यह बताना आवश्यक है कि इन दोनों क्षेत्रों में स्ंास्थागत रूप से शिक्षण प्रक्रिया का प्रचलन आरम्भ में र्धािर्मक प्रतिष्ठानों से ही सम्बन्धित था।  स्पिति में धार्मिक संस्था अर्थात मठों का आश्रय लिया गया। यहां सबसे बड़ा भाई घर और ज़मीन-जायदाद की देखभाल करता था और कुछ भाईयों को मठ में भेज दिया जाता था। अतः यहां मठ में काफी संख्या में छात्र हो जाते थे जहां सामुहिक शिक्षण व्यवस्था की जा सकती थी। यहां शिक्षण की व्यवस्था अच्छी होने के कारण शिक्षा का स्तर भी अच्छा था।  अच्छे ज्ञानी थे और कई विद्वान हुए। रांगरिक-रे-छेन यहां के ऐसे ही एक प्रसिद्ध विद्वान हुए हैं। उनकी कुछ रचनाएं प्रकाशित हुई हैं। यहां के शिक्षक बाहर के इलाकों में मठों के अधीक्षक रहे हैं। जैसे कि लाहुल मेंनेपाल में, तथा अन्यत्र।

            स्पिति में शिक्षार्थियों और प्रशिक्षार्थियों का एक अन्य वर्ग था जो बुछेन कहलाते हैं। ये अधिकतर गृहस्थ हैं और इनकी संख्या भी कम ही है। अतः इनके शिक्षण और प्रशिक्षण की विधि भी भिन्न रही है। इनका प्रशिक्षण लम्बा होता है। उन्हें साहित्य, नाटक, गीत, संवाद, नृत्य, आदि कई विषयों से सम्बन्धित ज्ञान अर्जन करना होता था और कई प्रकार के कार्य करने होते हैं। ये परम्परा से परिवार में ही व्यवसायिक प्रशिक्षण प्राप्त कर लेते थे। अथवा किसी को गुरू बना कर उनका चेला बन जाते थे। उनसे सीखते और उनकी देख रेख में शिक्षा ग्रहण करते थे।  परन्तु अधिकतर ये व्यवहार में काम करते करते सीखते थे।

लाहुुल में परिवार में आर्थिक प्रबन्धन कुछ भिन्न था। यहां सभी भाई घर में रहते थे।  परिवार के विभिन्न सदस्य अलग अलग कार्य में व्यस्त हो जाते थे जैसे कि एक भाई घर में रहेगा। एक घोड़े खच्चर के साथ जाएगा और तीसरा यदि हो तो कुछ और काम करेगा। उनमें से किसी किसी घर से एक भाई लामा हो जाता था।  परन्तु प्रायः वह भी गृहस्थ ही होता था। वे मठों में केवल कुछ समय के लिए ही रहते थे। अतः मठ में पर्याप्त संख्या में शिक्षार्थी नहीं होतें थे।  यहां जिसे लामा बनना हो उसे अपना गुरू स्वयं ढूंढना होता था और उसी के अधीन वह अध्ययन करता था।

इस विधि से शिक्षा का स्तर बहुत ऊंचा नहीं हो सकता था। यह क्षेत्र में कर्मकांड के कार्य के लिए तो पर्याप्त था परन्तु उच्च स्तर का शिक्षा अर्जन के लिए सह व्यवस्था अपर्याप्त थी। अतः कुछ जिज्ञासु शिक्षार्थी अघ्ययन के लिए बाहर जाते थे जैसे निकट में जंखर। परन्तु यहां की परम्परा अध्ययन के लिए अधिकतर भूटान, नेपाल और तिब्बत मे जाने की रही है।

इन लामाओं में कुछ व्यवसायिक भी होते थे। जैसे अमची, अर्थात वैद, मूर्ति व थंका बनाने वाले, और दीवार पर चित्रकारी करने वाले पोन, तथा लकड़ी और पत्थरो पर अक्षर खोदने वाले। इनका भी प्रशिक्षण इसी विधि से होता था। वे किसी ऐसे प्रसद्धि व्यक्ति के साथ काम करते रहते थे। परन्तु इनकी संख्या बहुत कम थी।

            ऊपर बताए गए शिक्षण प्रथा का प्रसार स्पिति और लाहुल दोनों में लगभग ग्याहरवी-बारहवीं सदी से आरम्भ हुआ, जब स्पिति के निकट के क्षेत्र गुगे के महान अनुवादक रिन्छेन जांगपो का अनुवाद व मन्दिर निर्माण तथा विथिन्न रूप से विद्या के प्रसार का अभियान चला।  तब स्पिति, किन्नौर और लाहुल में कई मन्दिर स्थापित हुए। इस वातावरण में स्थानीय भिक्षुओं के बनने की परम्परा का भी शुभारम्भ होना आवश्यक था। इससे पहले कुछ भिन्न प्रथा थी तो उसका हमें ज्ञान नहीं है। इस प्रकार स्पिति और लाहुल में शिक्षा का प्रसार प्रारम्भ में भिक्षुओं में हुआ।  भिक्षुओं के अतिरिक्त कुछ साधारण व्यक्ति भी शिक्षित थे। उनके शिक्षण का प्रबन्ध व्यक्तिगत ही रहा होगा।

उपरलिखित शिक्षण व्यवस्था लिखित ग्रन्थों पर आधारित व्यवस्था है। लाहुल में कुछ ऐसे शिक्षार्थी भी थे, जैसे कि सभी जगह होता है, जिनकी शिक्षा का स्त्रोत ग्रन्थ नहीं था बल्कि वे परम्परा में एक पीढ़ी से दूसरी पीढ़ी को ज्ञान प्रवाहित करते थे अथवा शिक्षार्थी किसी अन्य शिक्षक से ज्ञान प्राप्त करता था। इनमें एक श्रेणी है लब्दागपा की और दूसरा है लहफा। ये दोनों स्थानीय देवताओं के पुजारी हैं। लब्दागपा अपने घर के देवता की पूजा करता है जो साल में दो तीन बार होता हैं। कभी कभी उसे दूसरों के घर में भी पूजा करनी पड़ती है।

लब्दागपा छोटे छोटे मन्त्र अथवा प्रार्थना का प्रयोग करते हैं और वे अपने परिवार के पूर्वजों से सीखते हैं। इनके मन्त्र गुप्त नहीं होते हैं। ये अपने मंत्र जोर से स्पष्ट बोल सकते हैं और लोगों को बता सकते हैं। ये उबरते नहीं हैं, इनको देवता नहीं चढ़ता है। ये शांन्त रहते हैं।

लहफा कुल्लु के गूर का रूपान्तर हैं। ये कुछ स्थानीय बड़े देवता जैसे गेपांग, तंगजर आदि के गुर हैं। तथा कुछ अन्य तान्त्रिक भी इसी श्रेणी में आते हैं जो झाड फूंक करते हैं या गडवी चलाते हैं। इनकी विद्या का प्रायः जनसाधारण को ज्ञान नहीं होता है। इनकी शिक्षा परम्परा से परिवार में होता है अथवा किसी गुरू से ग्र्रहण की जाती है। इनके  मन्त्र गुप्त होते हैं जिनको लिखा नहीं जा सकता है न ही साधारण व्यक्ति को बताया जा सकता है। केवल अपने शिष्य को ही बताया जाता है। अतः यदि यह विद्या एक पीढ़ी से दूसरी पीढ़ी को स्थानान्तरित नहीं किया गया तो इनके गुप्त ज्ञान की परम्परा टूट जाती है तथा वह विद्या लुप्त हो सकती है।

हसी तरह यहां एक अन्य सामाजिक वर्ग है जिसे भट कहते हैं। ये ब्राह्मण श्रेणी से संबंधित हैं और ब्राह्मण का कार्य करते हैं। कुछ धार्मिक कृत्यों में ये जो पाठ करते हैं उनमे कुछ पाठ उनके स्वरचित हैं। इनकी शिक्षा भी परिवार की परम्परा और गुरू शिष्य की परम्पर पर आधारित है।

            लोहार और सुनार की कारीगिरी का काम भी प्रायः परिवार में परम्परा से चलता रहा है। मिस्त्री बनने के लिए लोग किसी के शागिर्द हो जाते हैं। तरखान प्रायः लोगों के साथ काम करते करते सीख जाते थे।

यह लाहुल और स्पिति में प्राचीन काल में प्रचलित शिक्षण पद्धति का एक परिचय है। 


मियां बेहड़ंढालपुर
कुल्लु - 175101 हि0 प्र0


Friday, April 3, 2015

‘Helicopter politics’ rages in tribal Lahaul-Spiti

MANALI: Politics over the number and frequency of emergency helicopter sorties to snow-bound Lahaul-Spiti district is heating up in the cold mountains with BJP and Congress leaders engaging in a war of words. 

When heavy snowfall blocks all roads leading to this tribal area, helicopters are the only mode of transport for thousands of residents. Bad weather conditions had forced the pilots to cancel all sorties for over two weeks earlier this month and BJP leaders got an opportunity to blame the ruling Congress party, alleged a Congress leader. BJP leaders said that it is the result of pressure brought in by them that the state government had to convince the defence ministry to provide two choppers from Air Force, which are lifting people from various helipads in Lahaul-Spiti. 

The number of emergency flights to tribal Lahaul-Spiti district has remained a top agenda in manifestoes by party candidates in this tribal district for over three decades. BJP candidates are trying to fault the helicopter schedule while Congress is trying to woo the tribal population by ensuring maximum possible sorties to make up for cancellation of sorties earlier. For now, patients and students are being lifted on priority basis. 

Wednesday, March 4, 2015

लाहौल घाटी में पुन: हेलीकॉप्टर सेवा बहाल
म्याड घाटी,तिन्दी समेत पुरे लाहौल में हेलीकॉप्टर से रेकी की
भारी बर्फबारी होने और लाहौल में बड़ी संख्या में फंस गए लोगों को उस समय बड़ी राहत मिली बुधवार से जब घाटी में हेलीकॉप्टर सेवा फिर से शुरू हो गई।
इस इलाके में हेलीकॉप्टर ने पहले चक्कर में उदयपुर,तिन्दी और मयाड घाटी के टिंगरट से मरीजों और यात्रियों को कुल्लू लाया, जिससे लोगों के चेहरे पर चमक आ गई।
घाटी में बोर्ड परीक्षाओं के प्रश्न पत्र पहुंचने से स्टूडेंट्स ने भी राहत की साँस ली है। वहीं, घाटी से बाहर निकलने वाले यात्रियों ने बताया की लाहौल के कई गाँव बर्फ की चादर से ढक गया है और हेलीकॉप्टर से सिर्फ सफ़ेद ही सफ़ेद दिख रहा है।

Wednesday, February 25, 2015

ICMR to set up research centre in KEYLONG

ICMR के टेली मेडिसाइन की खबर पहले भी..छप चुकी है।आज फिर ट्रिब्यून में छपा है:- ICMR to set up research centre in KEYLONG Shimla, February 24 The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) will set up its Research and Telemedicine Centre at Keylong in Lahaul Spiti. The aim of the centre is to study nature-specific diseases afflicting tribal people who in the absence of doctors and other paramedical staff face great inconvenience in getting treatment at local government health institutions. The research centre would be formally inaugurated by Union Health Minister Jagat Prakash Nadda in June. “The ICMR has agreed to set up a research centre and a branch of the National Institute of Malaria Research Field Station, Jabalpur, at Keylong so that a study of nature-specific diseases afflicting local population can be held,” Besides the telemedicine centre, an ISRO satellite station would be set up at Keylong. A meeting would be held with the state government in April to work out the modalities for setting up this centre. Ravi Thakur,local MLS said health problems being faced by people in far-flung areas of Lahaul Spiti were Hepatitis-B, cancer, joint pains and back ache, many of them due to extreme cold conditions. “Despite there being a 50-bed hospital at the district headquarters of Keylong, the absence of specialists makes it difficult for other doctors to diagnose accurately and timely. Now, the research centre will greatly benefit local people,” he said. Ravi had taken up this problem faced by tribal people with Dr VM Katoch, Union Health Secretary, Dr Surinder Kumar Verma, Head of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, and Dr Jai P Narain, former Director of WHO. The research station would prove to be beneficial for paramilitary and military forces deployed in border areas. Almost all tribal and remote areas in Himachal, including Lahaul Spiti, face a shortage of doctors, nurses and other para-medical staff, making timely detection of diseases and their treatment difficult. It would help in detection and treatment which could be availed through the telemedicine project which is being actively pursued by the state Health and Family Welfare Department. Ravi Thakur said he had taken up the issue of declaring tribal areas of Himachal as tax-free zones as was the case in other tribal areas of the North East. “Declaring the tribal areas as tax free could attract doctors towards this place as their salary will be non-taxable and this will serve as an incentive to serve there,” he said

केलांग में गोची उत्सव की धूम

अपने लाहुल-स्पीति से।। केलांग में गोची उत्सव की धूम  केलांग —  लाहुल-स्पीति के मुख्यालय केलांग में आयोजित होने वाले वार्षिक गोची उत्सव का त्योहार मंगलवार के दिन धूमधाम से मनाया गया । इस मौके पर रंग बिरंगे पोषाक धारण किए हुए लोग स्थानीय देवता केलिंग बजीर व युल्ला की स्तुति कर रहे थे तथा गांव में पुत्र रत्न की प्राप्ति कर केलिंग बजीर व युल्ला का कृतध्यता जाहिर कर रहे थे । तीन दिन तक चलने वाले इस उत्सव का कल दूसरा दिन था ।आज बुधवार को इसकी समाप्ति होगी। इस वर्ष लोअर केलांग में दो व अपर केलांग में चार घरों में गोची उत्सव के लिए गाव वाले एकत्रित हुए। हालांकि मंगलवार के दिन केलांग में मौसम खराब रहने के बावजूद भारी संख्या में कारदंग, ग्वाजंग, बिलिंग, युरनाथ, सितंगरी समेत आस पास इलाके के लोगों ने अपनी उपस्थिति दर्ज कराई । इस मौके पर अपर केलांग व लोअर केलांग के विशिष्ट घरों के लोग पारंपारिक वेश-भूषा में अलग-अलग समय पर निर्धारित स्थल पर एकत्रित हुए तथा देव परंपराओं को निभाते हुए तीर अंदाजी भी की गई। जुलूस की शक्ल में निकाली गई यह शोभा यात्रा बेहद आकर्षक तथा देखते ही बनता था।  जिला मुख्यालय के अपर व लोअर केलांग के स्थानीय निवासियों को अपने पुत्र जन्म पर अपने घर में गोची उत्सव मनाना अनिवार्य होता है।